| Lawrence Penn Chair of Bowel Cancer Research
Dedicated to leading edge bowel cancer discoveries
Researching a cure for Australia's second deadliest cancer is to receive a major boost with $10.4 million to establish a professorial chair of bowel cancer research at the University of Sydney.

The majority of funding comes from national charity Bowel Cancer Australia, which has committed $6.4 million to establish the position and will be supported by additional funds of $4 million available to the University to advance research into bowel cancer.

Bowel Cancer Australia chairman Craig Jackson said that the establishment of the chair at the University of Sydney was the culmination of many years of effort by the Bowel Cancer Australia Board.

An endowed professorial chair is recognised as a University's finest scholar in their field of expertise. They provide a research focal point in the country they are located, helping to attract and retain the brightest researchers and spur colleagues to their finest efforts - benefiting the entire Australian community.

To underscore the significance of this research investment, expenditure by the National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC) on bowel cancer was $12.3 million in 2017.

Bowel Cancer Australia chief executive Mr Julien Wiggins said the size of the funding commitment will enable the chair and ancillary support to continue in perpetuity.

"Our funding will expand Australia's research capacity and we anticipate the Chair will be a game changer for bowel cancer research in this country," he added.

Bowel cancer is the second deadliest cancer in Australia, claiming more than 5,000 lives each year.

"Changing that will require significant, long-term funding for dedicated bowel cancer research and that's what we've provided."

"While screening can help with early detection, it won't eliminate bowel cancer. Research is the only way to discover a cure," said Mr Wiggins.

The Lawrence Penn Chair of Bowel Cancer Research is named after one of Australia's oldest bowel cancer survivors and is based at the University of Sydney's Northern Clinical School Campus.

"We are extraordinarily grateful to Bowel Cancer Australia for their support," said the Dean of Sydney Medical School, Professor Arthur Conigrave.

"In times when national research funding is increasingly difficult to secure, we rely more than ever on funds from community groups and individuals to undertake the research which is essential if we are to better prevent and treat bowel cancer.

"The University of Sydney has many world-class cancer researchers and clinicians. This philanthropic support for bowel cancer means we can build on our existing programs and make a greater contribution to improving cancer outcomes," said Professor Conigrave.

Bowel Cancer Australia relies solely on the generosity of community and corporate supporters as it receives no government funding.

Please support Bowel Cancer Australia's ongoing research efforts to help save lives and to improve the health and wellbeing of people living with bowel cancer.

To make a donation please call 1800 555 494 or click here.

Mark Molloy
| Professor Mark Molloy PhD
Professor Mark Molloy PhD is the inaugural Lawrence Penn Chair of Bowel Cancer Research, located at the Kolling Institute, on the Royal North Shore Hospital Campus.
Professor Molloy is the leader researcher of The Bowel Cancer and Biomarker Research Group which focuses on translational cancer research working at the interface of science and clinical research. The Group apply scientific expertise to questions of clinical relevance that will improve the care of bowel cancer patients. 
Professor Molloy is a biochemist and has developed his expertise in the science of 'proteomics'. He is internationally recognised as an expert in the application of mass spectrometry in biomedical research. Professor Molloy’s focus areas are in translational cancer research, biomarker studies and cell signalling.
A major theme of Professor Molloy’s research has been to use mass spectrometry to conduct quantitative proteomic analyses of biospecimens. He has used this approach for the molecular characterisation of colon, thyroid and pancreatic cancers, melanomas and some lung cancers. The data has been used to identify prognostic and predictive protein biomarkers.
More recently, Professor Molloy has opened a new research direction to use mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic monitoring of cancer drug levels in patients and to explore analysis from dried blood spots. Many of these collaborations have been with clinicians. This new role will enable him to expand these interactions and focus a major effort towards molecular analysis of bowel cancer.
Professor Molloy completed his PhD in proteomic sciences at Macquarie University in 2000 under the supervision of Keith Williams, co-inventor of the term "proteomics" before conducting post-doctoral research at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, USA. He then worked in the US at Pfizer Inc for four years applying biomarker research to support new drug development.
Professor Molloy returned to Australia to take up a National Health and Medical Research Council career development award fellowship on colorectal cancer biomarker proteins in collaboration with Professor Stephen Clarke, before becoming Director of APAF.
Professor Molloy’s leadership and international standing in the application of proteomics is evidenced by outstanding grant success (career total $42.9M), publications (>150), Scopus citations (>4900) and HDR student completions (14). He is a Chief Investigator of the Sydney Vital Translational Cancer Research Centre.
The commencement of Professor Molloy as the Lawrence Penn Chair of Bowel Cancer Research is the culmination of many years of hard work by all concerned and marks the beginning of many more years of valuable, translatable research.
The establishment of the Chair at the University of Sydney provides a unique opportunity to build a research team committed to beating bowel cancer, a disease which is projected to claim the lives of 33,964 Australians in the next seven years.

| Proteomoics
Professor Molloy will be applying molecular technologies to discover what causes a polyp to become cancerous and what drives the spread of disease.
Molecular technologies include genomics (the study of all the genes), proteomics (the study of all the proteins), and metabolomics (the study of all the metabolites).
To understand the biology underlying cancer, scientists have traditionally studied cancer genes – the genome. That analysis has shown that bowel cancers are not uniform and can be subdivided into at least four types, based on molecular features they possess.
However, a blind spot in research has been the study of all the proteins – the proteome – which is the molecular machinery of the cell.
Cancer proteomics is an important new frontier in cancer research. It uses mass spectrometry, a powerful analytical technique for identifying proteins and measuring the quantity of each type of protein that is present.
"We need to look at the things that the genes are producing, and that's what proteomics is about," explained Professor Molloy.
"By studying how protein structure and function change when diseases such as cancer are present, we are hoping to identify which specific proteins play a role in bowel cancer," Professor Molloy added.
Knowing which proteins are present in bowel cancer is essential for developing new cancer treatments and for using existing treatments as efficiently as possible because most of the drugs used to treat diseases such as cancer interact with proteins.

Mass Spectrometer
| Mass spectrometry
Professor Molloy’s focus is on molecular analysis, which can improve understanding of tumour biology and help clinicians make decisions about treatment. It is an area of research that could have a profound impact on the care of bowel cancer patients.
“There is no doubt that technology is driving a big revolution in clinical care,” Professor Molloy said.
One example of this technological transformation is the use of mass spectrometers – sophisticated weighing devices that allow researchers to determine the molecular make-up of various substances.
With two new mass spectrometers installed at the Kolling Institute, Professor Molloy and his team will analyse the molecular features of proteins and metabolites in individual tumours, to tailor treatment pathways according to the needs of each patient.
"When combined with genomic analysis, this gives us a more complete molecular picture of bowel cancer, which is essential to better understand prevention and treatment strategies," Professor Molloy said.

Mass spectrometers could also be used to monitor medication levels in a patient’s system, allowing clinicians to deliver a dose precisely calibrated to suit the individual.
“Currently those decisions are based on BMI [body mass index],” said Professor Molloy.
“But people metabolise these drugs differently based on genetics … By applying molecular analysis techniques to blood samples, the oncologist could potentially adjust the medication levels up or down in a more precise and personalised way.”

The goal is to find ways of integrating molecular analysis into everyday patient care. Professor Molloy envisages that within the next five years clinical teams working with bowel cancer patients could include a molecular scientist.
“Today, these multidisciplinary teams discuss imaging, surgery, approaches to chemotherapy and so on,” he said.
“I’d like to see clinicians also asking how molecular analysis could help add to the fuller picture.”

Lawrence Penn
| Lawrence Penn
The Chair of Bowel Cancer at the University of Sydney is named after Mr Lawrence Penn, one of Australia’s oldest bowel cancer survivors. Passionate aviator, former RAAF and Qantas pilot, Lawrence Penn was one of approximately 7,000 Australians diagnosed with bowel cancer in 1985.
At the time, the five-year relative survival rate was just 47 percent and life expectancy for newly diagnosed bowel cancer patients with advanced disease was just five months. With improvements in early detection, advances in surgery and effective adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent cancer recurrence, an increasing number of advanced bowel cancer survivors are living longer.
Unfortunately, while mortality rates are remaining stable, and in some age-groups declining, incidence is forecast to rise to 20,000 new cases per year by 2020. For those who detect the disease early like Mr Penn, 90 percent of bowel cancer cases can be successfully treated.
“I feel very honoured to think my name is going to be associated with such important research,” Mr Penn said.
Because of his family’s experience with bowel cancer, Lawrence Penn’s son Richard and wife Heather, became active supporters of Bowel Cancer Australia’s work.
Mr Richard Penn, Chairman of the Penn Foundation, was invited by the Board to become Patron of Bowel Cancer Australia in 2006. One year later, The Penn Foundation helped launch a fundraising appeal to establish Australia’s first Chair of Bowel Cancer Research, with a $1million funding commitment.
“My main motivation for getting this chair was so as many people as possible can have more time with their loved ones,” Richard said.

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